CO2 efficiency in bakeries, breweries, fishing vessels, heat pumps & more

By Janet Thompson, Sep 23, 2013, 14:38 6 minute reading

Carrier Transicold, Mayekawa, DSI, Schiessl, boostHEAT and Colt International will be presenting their CO2 technologies and projects during the case study sessions at ATMOsphere Europe 2013. Studies focus on energy savings and cost and efficiency analysis for a number of projects and applications including the latest CO2 container refrigeration systems and plate freezers aboard fishing vessels, to CO2/R290 systems for hop cooling, CO2/NH3 plants for ba

Below, you will find summaries of the case study abstracts that will be presented at ATMOsphere Europe 2013, as well as quotes from the authors.

Efficient road transport refrigeration unit using CO2 by Sebastien Lemoine, Carrier Transicold

This case study will focus on Carrier Transicold’s recently launched first CO2 container refrigeration system, NaturaLINETM, which, after withstanding two years of extensive field trials, provides an example of efficient and environmentally friendly road transport. Even if the system price is initially higher than current or partially improved systems, leakage check costs, taxes on the refrigerant and refrigerant price versatility are factors that will not impact natural refrigerant systems, increasing their competitiveness and viability.

Natural refrigerants with high pressure compressors in industrial plants by Robert Sossi, Mayekawa

The case study focuses on a French plant installed in 2011 by contractor Axima Refrigeration. The plant was installed for a nominal freezing production capacity of approx. 3 mW at -35°C product temperature with a CO2/NH3 cascade system. The presentation will include an additional project example of a high pressure reciprocating ammonia compressor for the production of 90°C hot water of approximately 3 mW. Heat rejected from the chilling installation is used as the heat sources. The study looks at the operational results of the plant, including energy efficiency, investment and operating cost summaries.

Plate freezers aboard fishing vessels using CO2 and ammonia by Mads Sigsgaard, DSI
Maximizing production and refrigeration efficiency is key for ship-owners when investing in plate freezers. Environmental legislation is forcing the change to natural refrigerants, but the limited space in a fishing vessel means that improving the operational efficiency of the refrigeration system and optimizing the factory throughput is very important. The additional factory throughput and the difficulty getting people to work aboard calls for improvement of the working environment. In the last years, we have delivered many plate freezers for European fishing companies based on natural refrigerants,” says Mads Sigsgaard, Regional Sales Manager for DSI.

For more than 30 years, DSI has manufactured plate freezers for installation aboard fishing vessels. The earliest installations used HCFC and HFC refrigerants. Today, most new installations aboard European fishing vessels employ NH3 and CO2 plate freezers. This case study will show that the adaption of natural refrigerants in the fishing vessels has been going on for several years and continues with the aim of maximizing the efficiency of the systems and improving the working environment in the factory aboard.

CO2 and Propane – two efficient partners for industrial cooling by Robert Baust, Schiessl

Since November 2012, the cascade CO2 and R290 unit Schiessl took into commission has been running fault free and has shown noticeable reduction in power consumption when compared to the predecessor unit, which used R404A. The unit’s duty is 140 kW for brine at -37°C, which is used for the industrial process of hop cooling. It is designed as a compressor rack with three Bitzer reciprocating compressors at each stage. To keep operational and investment costs low, heat exchangers were integrated for subcooling the R290 and desuperheating the R744. Electronic expansion valves and frequency inverters for the compressor and condenser were also employed. This basic design can be used as a model for any cooling duty by brine or direct expansion between -25°C and -48°C.

Thermal compression of CO2 to reduce boiler consumption by half by Luc Jacquet, boostHEAT
Boiler and heat pump technologies are mature and efficient. Using the specifics of CO2 as a refrigerant, boostHEAT develops a new generation of heat generators combining the best of both technologies and realizing a major consumption breakthrough” shares Luc Jacquet, President and Co-founder of boostHEAT.

Through thermal compression technology, boostHEAT brings to the boiler what the heat pump brought to electric heating. This case study presents how boostHEAT merged two tried and tested heating technologies: the boiler and the heat pump. The fusion was performed using an original patented thermal compression system. The calorific value of the fuel is used, not to power the heating system, but to compress the CO2 refrigerant used in the heat pump cycle. The anticipated reduction in consumption levels is 45-60% for low temperature boilers (35°C), 25-40% for high temperature boilers (55-65°C) and 50-80% for production of domestic hot water. The first prototype has been designed to provide a rated power of 10kW and run for 50,000 hours (15 years) without requiring maintenance.

Decentral and central heat pumps with or without HFCs? by Menno van der Hoff, KNVvK & NVKL

In recent years, many sectors have started to ban or banned CFC/H(C)FC in favour of natural refrigerants. The Energy Performance Building Directive and local regulations have increased building quality, leading to lower heating demands. However, the cooling demand continues to rise. End users do not want to compromise on indoor climate. Thus, local heating and mutual cooling demands are becoming a frequent fact. This doesn't decrease our CO2 footprint emission enough. Heat pumps are great machines providing both efficient heating and cooling. But globally, this sector greatly relies on HFC gas. The presentation highlights the large VRF sector. For the future, these gases are banned, but F-Gas policy requires new solutions too.
To solve this, we have to separate the small / decentral heat pumps from the large and central heat pumps. Some basic HVAC systems are explained. Often, low GWP and natural refrigerant solutions are already available, are presented or are under development. Systems can be made with direct expansion or indirect with water loops. Adding thermal energy storage is a superb feature in moderate climates, to operate in a passive manner. A decentral propylene system and a central propane HP system are shown as examples,” says Menno van der Hoff, Product Manager HVAC at Colt International.

Process cooling with CO2 in Mack brewery, Norway by Kent Hofmann, Green & Cool

Additonal case studies at ATMOsphere Europe 2013

  • Integrated CO2 booster for high-efficiency cooling, heating and air-conditioning by Jens Kallesoe, Advansor
  • CO2 integrated systems for warm climates by Diego Malimpensa, Carel Industries S.p.A.
  • The CO2 'dream solution' for a supermarket - a concept case by Torben Funder-Kristensen, Danfoss
  • Advanced CO2-booster-system for warm climates by Jonas Schönenberger, Frigo-Consulting AG
  • Improving efficiency for small transcritical CO2 supermarket installations by Christian Heerup, Danish Technological Institute (DTI)
  • CO2 booster for convenience stores using mixed scroll/piston compressor technology by Sylvain Lamy, Emerson Climate Technologies GmbH

To read a full description of the case studies selected for the Commercial Refrigeration Session on the event website, click here

  • Delivering 90°C district heat from the fjord with zero emissions and zero GWP by Dave Pearson, Star Refrigeration - full description
  • Energy efficient vacuum freezing ice slurry generation using a R718 compressor by Mathias Safarik, ILK Dresden - full description

About ATMOsphere Europe 2013
15 & 16 October at the Crowne Plaza Le Palace Hotel in Brussels, Belgium

Once again, around 200 HVAC&R industry experts will come together at the 5th annual ATMOsphere Europe 2013: Natural Refrigerants – Solutions for Europe. One of the main features of this year’s conference is an exclusive and in depth look at the new F-Gas regulations with in put from representatives of the European Institutions, as well as national governments. In addition to sessions on policy developments and market trends, ATMOsphere Europe 2013 also features several parallel case study sessions focusing on the latest natural refrigerant technologies and projects in the areas of industrial, commercial and transport refrigeration, air- conditioning, heat pumps and more.

View the full ATMOsphere Europe 2013 programme:

Register for the event:

For general information about ATMOsphere Europe 2013, please visit the event website at


By Janet Thompson

Sep 23, 2013, 14:38

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